筆記試験の問題は 第1問、第2問が昨年度より易しめになった印象でした。 ただし、第３問以降は例年並みかやや難度が高めだったこともあり、 平均点としては去年と同程度の122点でした。
第1問 ・・・ 発音・アクセント
① amuse ② cute ③ future ④ rude
① feather ② federal ③ gender ④ gene
① enough ② laughter ③ mighty ④ rough
① accuse ② circumstance ③ decay ④ facility
① athlete ② career ③ fatigue ④ sincere
① calculate ② entertain ③ ignorant ④ musician
① automobile ② disagreement ③ electronics ④ geography
昨年度に比較して今年の問題は取り組みやすく、高得点が期待できる問題だったでしょう。ただこの発音問題に登場する単語は例年レベルが高いです。システム英単語の第3章、第4章に載っている単語が頻繁に登場します。 今後の勉強法としては、発音記号とアクセントを個別で覚えていくよりも音読しながら文章の中で覚える方法をおススメします。 システム英単語であればCDを聞きながら自分で発音し感覚的に身につけていきましょう。とにかく、音読することです。
アクセントに関しては、 アクセントルールを覚えていきましょう。今年の問題でいうと問2のreligion, calculate, identity, electronics。ion, ity, icsで終わる単語は直前音節にアクセントが来ます。またateで終わる単語は2つ前の音節にアクセントが来ます。2007年以降の問題を分析するだけでも十分な数のルールを網羅できます。
過去問演習や模試の復習を大切にしてください！ マーク模試などの間違えた問題をノートにメモするなどしていくと、 来年のセンター試験までに自分の弱点ノートが出来上がります。
第2問 ・・・ 文法・語法・会話問題
問1 Some companies have ( ) a new policy of using English as the official in-house language.
① absorbed ② accompanied ③ adopted ④ appointed
問2 Could you show me how to make my mobile phone ring differently, ( ) who's calling me?
① depending on ② in spite of ③ on behalf of ④ relying on
問3 Ms. Bell is stuck in a traffic jam. The important meeting will have finished by the time she ( ).
① arrives ② may arrive ③ will arrive ④ will have arrived
問4 We had the microwave, the toaster and the heater all ( ) at the same time, and the circuit breaker switched off.
① in ② on ③ up ④ with
問5 Mr. Brown looked over the cliff and found he was standing at the edge of ( ) drop.
① circular ② cubic ③ horizontal ④ vertical
問8 You should not let your personal emotions ( ) in the way of making that important decision.
①stand ②standing ③to be stood ④to stand
問9 “Which girl is Shiori?"
“The one ( ) had a chat with a moment ago."
① I ② myself ③ that ④ who
2012年は基本的な出題でした。昨年度は難しめの問題がありましたが、今年は満点を狙いたい問題です。例年10問で定着している第2問Aですが、時間をかけすぎないように注意する必要があります。すべての問題を頭から読んで日本語に訳す必要はありません。まず選択肢を見て文全体の意味を把握すべき問題であるか判断してください。例えば、問1、問5のように同じ名詞で違った意味の単語が並んでいる場合は文脈を把握する必要があるので、全体の意味を考えなければなりません。一方、問3のように動詞の時制を問う問題であれば解答の手がかりとなるby the timeと未来表現に気づけば意味を考えることなく答えを選べます。また問9のような全体の文構造を問う問題もセンター試験に特徴的なものです。別ページで出題パターンに分けて着眼点についてまとめたいと思います。
高得点を狙うためには基礎力を充実させなければなりません。 対策としては、 第一に語彙力です。 問1のadopt, 問5のverticalなどの基本単語は確実に覚えておくようにしましょう。 （第4問の「木に含まれる水分」に関する長文にshrink(縮む)という単語が出てきますが、 このレベルも知っておきたいものです。）
ぜひ覚えてほしい表現が出題されました。 (問2)depending on～ ： ～次第で You should decide what to do depending on the situation. 「状況に応じて何をすべきか決めるべきだ。」
That(It) depends. 「それは時と場合による。」という表現もあります。 英作文や会話表現で使える表現です。 このようにセンター試験は実用的な要素が強い試験です。
Mr. Matsumoto is an English teacher who believes English classes should start with a joke. He always tries hard to create funny jokes. Some of his students have complained about his jokes being a waste of time. His colleagues also have advised him not to spend so much time writing" jokes. However, Mr. Matsumoto is such an obstinate person that he will not listen to them and continues to spend a lot of time making up jokes for his classes.
In this situation, an obstinate person means a person who is ( ).
① flexible about ideas
② generous to his students
③ unable to reject criticism
④ unwilling to change his mind
第3問Aは未知語類推問題です。本文から単語の意味を推測して答えられますので、丁寧に本文を読んでヒントを探してください。今回は太字にしたhe will not listen to themの部分から人の意見を聞こうとしないとありますので、正解は④ですね。
Kenji: I think watching television too much is harmful to young children. I've read that it can delay their speech development. I believe face-to-face communication is essential for young children to develop their speech. I know some parents use TV as a babysitter. Maybe they're very busy, but they should try to make time for their children rather than just let them watch television. Oh, here comes Hiroshi. Hi, Hiroshi.
Hiroshi: Sorry I'm late.
Miki: Hi, Hiroshi. We've just started. We're talking about the effects of television on young children.
Kenji thinks ( ).
① parents should talk to their young children about television programs unless they're busy
② watching television is good because it enables young children to develop their speech
③ watching television is harmful for parents because it robs them of precious time
④ young children who watch television a lot may not learn to talk as early as they should
Kenji: I think watching television too much is harmful to young children. I've read that it can delay their speech development. ・・・
このKenjiの一文目のセリフが目に焼き付いてしまった受験生は解答③を選んでしまいます。 ③watching television is harmful for parents for it robs them of precious time
③watching television is harmful for parents ～ 親の話にすり替わっているのです！
④young children who watch television a lot may not learn to talk as early as they should これが答えです。 このように正解は本文の言い換えである (本文のそのままの表現を使うのではなく、他の表現で言い換えている) 場合がほとんどです。
Do you like eating “mixed nuts" while watching TV and movies at home? Since both almonds and peanuts can be found in the mixed nuts sold at grocery stores in Japan, you might assume that they are similar types of food. Indeed, ( 1 ). For instance, they are both nutritious as sources of minerals and vitamins. At the same time, however, some people can have allergic reactions to them. According to recent research, many children suffer from peanut and almond allergies.
Despite these similarities, however, almonds and peanuts are quite different. First, although they are both called nuts, they are classified differently in plant science. The almond is considered a drupe. This kind of plant bears fruit, inside of which is a hard shell with a seed. Other examples of drupes are peaches and plums, but with almonds, the seed is the part we eat. In contrast, the peanut is classified as a legume, a type of bean. The peanut grows underground, while the almond grows on trees. Moreover, each peanut shell contains from one to three peanuts as seeds, while the almond fruit has only one seed. Second, almonds and peanuts ( 2 ). Almonds came from the Middle East. Gradually, they spread to northern Africa and southern Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean, and later to other parts of the world. Peanuts, however, were first grown in South America, and later they were introduced to other parts of the world.
In conclusion, the product that we know as mixed nuts actually ( 3 ). Almonds and peanuts are plants which differ greatly, despite their notable similarities.
① it may be difficult to find some similarities between them
② many consumers know about differences between them
③ there is a wide variety in each package of mixed nuts
④ they share some interesting characteristics with each other
① are produced in different countries today
② are similar in that both are grown as crops
③ differ in terms of their place of origin
④ originated in the same part of Africa
① consists of foods with distinct characteristics
② contains foods having several similar qualities
③ includes different foods that may harm human health
④ offers good examples of plants defined as true nuts
また文章には抽象→具体という流れがあることを意識して読んでいきましょう。(1)は後ろにfor instance(例えば)がありますから、まさに抽象→具体の関係ですね。また(2)は位置に注意してみると、First, Secondと列挙されているSecondの後ろにありますから、First部分は速読で軽く意味を把握する程度で、Second以降で精読して正解を導きだしましょう。howeverで対比されていますから、①か③にしぼられ、原産地の話をしていますから③が答えです。
My name is Takeda Koji, and today I will talk about my study-abroad experience in the English Language Program at North Pacific University in Vancouver last year. First of all, I really liked the intensive English classes every weekday. My English has improved a lot. All the teachers were friendly and enthusiastic, and they sometimes stayed late to help us with our projects. I'm truly grateful to Ms. Lee, my advisor, who always responded to my problems promptly.
Also, I enjoyed exploring the city. It has many good ethnic restaurants and a wonderful park near the ocean where interesting events were held every weekend. I took many weekend trips offered by the program including a visit to the Native Canadian Art Museum and boat trips to several beautiful islands.
On top of that, I totally enjoyed the student life at NPU and attended many student-organized events on campus. My most precious memory is of preparing a big exhibit to introduce Japanese culture for the International Fair. However, there was one problem, that is, computer access. The computer rooms ill the Writing Center were always crowded, especially when students were writing midterm or final papers, and it was frustrating to wait so long.
I have one regret, and it's about my host family. Though my host parents and their 10-year-old son were nice people, they were so busy all the time. Both parents worked late, and the boy belonged to the local hockey team. So I often had to eat alone and didn't have much time to interact with them. I felt envious of Yuka, who will speak after me, when I went to a barbecue at her host family's. Now I think I should have consulted the program coordinator about this problem at an early stage.
Finally, I'd like to say that this program is very good for improving your English and expanding your knowledge about different cultures.
My name is Imai Yuka. I was in the same program as Koii at North Pacific University, though my experience was slightly different from his. First, I wasn't so satisfied with the courses offered, though the teachers were all wonderful. There were too many language classes, but only two courses that covered the history and culture of Canada. I mean, l wish l had learned more about Canada as well as studied English. Then the benefits would have been double.
Also, I had mixed feelings about the campus life at NPU. I loved the spacious lawns and nice facilities, but the campus events didn't seem so interesting to me. I know Koii had a great time at the International Fair, but I wanted to go to a concert with my host family instead. However, I was impressed by the wonderful Writing Center with its academic support. Even though it was sometimes crowded, it was worth the wait. I went there almost every weekend and learned how to write a good paper.
And I almost forgot to say that it was such fun to go around the city, especially to street fairs and some really great ethnic restaurants. On the other hand, I didn't take so many trips because there were lots of things going on with my host family.
Actually, what made my stay most exciting and unforgettable was my host family. My host father is an agricultural engineer and he has worked on projects in several different countries. Just talking with him was stimulating, and he, as well as my host mother, always helped me whenever I had problems with homework, friends, and school activities. My host mother is a violinist with the local philharmonic, and so we were able to go to the concerts every month for free. She opened my eyes to classical music, and I promised her that I would start piano lessons when I came back to Japan. They also have lots of friends. I met so many people at all the barbecues they had. In my case, the rich cultural experience my host family provided and the host family themselves were the best part of my stay.
問1 Both Koji and Yuka enjoyed ( )
① city exploration
② class projects
③ English language courses
④ the International Fair
問2 What did Koji complain about?
① His advisor was often out of reach when he needed help.
② His host family had little time to spend with him.
③ The computer rooms didn't have helpful staff.
④ The language classes were not so interesting.
問3 What was Yuka's criticism?
① She couldn't attend the International Fair.
② She couldn't take weekend trips to beautiful islands.
③ The Writing Center was always crowded.
④ There were not many classes about Canadian culture.
問4 Which of the following statements is true?
① Koji has a good impression of the school facilities.
② Koji thinks that his English should have improved more.
③ Yuka has a negative impression of the amount of homework.
④ Yuka has a positive feeling toward her host parents.
(1) A high school student has a science test on Monday but spends most of the weekend playing video games and does not start studying until late Sunday night. This kind of avoiding or delaying of work that needs to be done is called procrastination. It has been estimated that up to 95％of people procrastinate at least sometimes, and about 20％of them do it too much. Traditionally, people who procrastinate have been considered lazy, but research tells us that this is not true. Learning about the roots of procrastination can help us understand why most people do it to some extent and also help us decrease our own procrastination. Although researchers do not agree on all the reasons behind procrastination, there is general agreement about some factors that can explain it.
(2) The first factor is how pleasant or unpleasant people find a task. Research shows that people will put off tasks they find unpleasant. Many high school students may delay cleaning their rooms or doing their homework. However, many might not delay doing such tasks as responding to a friend's email. It is important to remember that whether or not a task is pleasant depends on the individual. For example, someone who loves bicycles might not delay fixing a punctured tire while someone who does not may put it off.
(3) In addition to how people feel about the job at hand, the amount of confidence they have in their ability to do a task is also related to procrastination. For instance, those who have low expectations of success are more likely to postpone starting a particular job. Conversely, those who believe that they can perform well are more likely to take on challenging tasks rather than avoid them. It should be noted, though, that some counselors argue that too much confidence can also lead to procrastination: some people overestimate how easily they can do a particular task and start too late.
(4）Another factor is whether or not people can exercise self-control. Those who have less self-control can easily be drawn away from their work. Accepting an invitation to sing karaoke on a night when you planned to start working on a presentation could be one example. Self-control, or the ability to resist temptation and stick to a plan, is something many of us struggle with. Interestingly, age is said to be associated with self-control. Research shows that the older people become, the less likely they are to delay doing their work until the last minute.
(5）Lastly, there is a link between procrastination and how long people must wait before they see the reward for an effort. For instance, studying hard in school might not give high school students any immediate rewards; what they learn might not seem useful to the present. However, studying can provide them with rewards in the future like the knowledge or skills necessary to pursue their dreams. Sometimes, it is hard to see the benefit of making an effort when the reward is too far away. This can explain why many people do not start saving money for their old age when they are young.
(6) What are the roots of your procrastination? Because the behaviors described here seem common to most people, you do not need to completely change your habits if you only procrastinate once in a while. On the other hand, if you feel that your procrastination is a problem, the first step to reducing it is identifying the reasons behind it. Self-help books and websites give numerous techniques for overcoming procrastination, but it is only by understanding the roots of the problem that you can choose the appropriate method for yourself.
問1 According to paragraph (2),
① people do not forget unpleasant asks
② people who love bicycles learn to fix tires fast
③ people will find different tasks pleasing
④ people will put off tasks to write emails
問2 Paragraph (3) implies that
① people with low confidence in their ability will start ａ job earlier
② people with reasonable confidence in their ability procrastinate less
③ people's confidence to do ａ task is not associated with procrastination
④ some counselors overestimate the confidence of their clients
問3 According to paragraph (4),
① older people tend to demonstrate more self-control
② people usually exercise self-control without struggle
③ self-control is the eagerness to accept invitations
④ younger people are willing to resist temptations
問4 Paragraph (5) argues that many people start saving for old age late because
① old age seems too distant in time
② the length of time to old age varies
③ there are other things to worry about
④ there will be little benefit
問5 The author's main argument is that
① many people agree about the four explanations of procrastination
② people who procrastinate are no longer thought of as lazy
③ procrastination has become problematic in our society
④ we can manage our procrastination by understanding its sources
問2 本文 those who believe that they can perform well are more likely to take on challenging rather than avoid them
正解：選択肢② people with reasonable confidence in their abilitity procrastinate less reasonableとあるのはパラグラフ後半に 「過度の自信があるとダラダラする傾向がある」と述べられているからです。
話は長くなりましたが、 センター試験で求められるのは、英語力はもちろんのこと落ち着いて丁寧に解く集中力です。 まずは英語力をつけなければなりません。 第2問でも触れたように語彙力、文法力を身につけた上で、読解力を磨きましょう。 とにかく、知っていることは大きな力です。 第3問Aのobstinate(頑固な)は英検準1級レベル 第6問のprocrastinate(ぐずぐずする)は英検1級レベルなので、 procrastinateまでは必要ありませんが、obstinateは知っておいてほしい単語です。このレベルの準備をしておけば怖いものはありません。語彙力こそ最大の武器になります。 そして、読解力を磨くにはたくさんの英文に触れて英語の文章に慣れなければいけません。 その際に音読が効果的です。 英語を声に出して読むことで、 発音・アクセント、リスニング力のみならず、速く読めるようになります。 おのずと読解力がついてくるわけです。